Mosheh ben Maimon (משה בן מימון), called Moses Maimonides (/maɪˈmɒnɪdiːz/ my-mon-i-deez) and also known as Mūsā ibn Maymūn (Arabic:موسى بن ميمون), or RaMBaM (רמב”ם – Hebrew acronym for “Rabbeinu Mosheh Ben Maimon" – English translation: "Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son [of] Maimon"), was a preeminent medieval Arab, Spanish, Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer and one of the most prolific and influential Torahscholars and physicians of the Middle Ages. He was born in Córdoba (present-day Spain), Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve, 1138, and died in Egypt on December 12, 1204. …The Maimonides Heritage Center was established to commemorate his legacy. He was a rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt.
Although his writings on Jewish law and ethics were met with acclaim and gratitude from most Jews, even as far off as Iraq and Yemen, and he rose to be the revered head of the Jewish community in Egypt, there were also vociferous critics of some of his writings, particularly in Spain. Nevertheless, he was posthumously acknowledged to be one of the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history, his copious work comprising a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law. In the Yeshiva world he is called sometimes “haNesher haGadol” (the great eagle) in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah.
Autarchism (from Greek, “belief in self rule”) is a political philosophy that upholds the principle of individual liberty, rejects compulsory government, and supports the elimination of government in favor of ruling oneself and no other. Advocates of the philosophy are autarchists (from Greek, “one who believes in self rule”), while the state in which everyone rules themselves and no one else is called autarchy (from Greek αὐταρχία autarchia, ”state of self rule”).
Robert LeFevre, a “self-proclaimed autarchist” recognized as such by Murray Rothbard, distinguished autarchism from anarchy, whose economics he felt entailed interventions contrary to freedom, in contrast to his own laissez-faire economics of the Austrian School. In professing “a sparkling and shining individualism" while "it advocates some kind of procedure to interfere with the processes of a free market”, anarchy seemed to LeFevre to be self-contradictory. He situated the fundamental premise of autarchy within the Stoicism of philosophers such as Zeno, Epicurusand Marcus Aurelius, which he summarized in the credo, “Control yourself”. Fusing these influences together, he arrived at the autarchist philosophy: “The Stoics provide the moral framework; the Epicureans, the motivation; the praxeologists, the methodology. I propose to call this package of ideological systems autarchy, because autarchy means self-rule.” LeFevre stated that “the bridge between Spooner and modern-day autarchists was constructed primarily by persons such as H. L. Mencken, Albert Jay Nock, and Mark Twain”.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, although he did not call himself an autarchist, is considered to have espoused autarchy. Philip Jenkins has stated that “Emersonian ideas stressed individual liberation, autarchy, self-sufficiency and self-government, and strenuously opposed social conformity.”. Robert D. Richardson stated that the anarchy Emerson had in mind “would be ‘autarchy’, rule by self”.
The essay “Autarchy, or, the art of self government,” published in 1691 in London and listing the author as “G.B.,” is attributed to George Burghope by NUC and to both Burghope and George Bright by Donald Goddard Wing.
John Whiteside Parsons (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons; October 2, 1914 – June 17, 1952), better known as Jack Parsons, was an American rocket engineer, chemist, and Thelemite occultist. A pioneer in solid-fuel rocket research and development, he was affiliated with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and was one of the principal founders of both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Aerojet Engineering Corporation.
Born in Los Angeles, California, and raised into a wealthy family in Pasadena, Parsons developed an early interest in rocketry inspired by science fiction literature, and in 1928 began amateur rocket experiments with school friend Edward Forman. He was forced to drop out of Pasadena Junior College and Stanford University due to financial difficulties in the Great Depression, but in 1934 united with Forman and graduate student Frank Malinato form the Caltech-affiliated GALCIT Rocket Research Group, supported by Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory chairman Theodore von Kármán. In 1939 they gained funding from the National Academy of Sciences to work on Jet-Assisted Take Off (JATO) for the U.S. military, renaming themselves the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In 1942, they founded the Aerojet Engineering Corporation to develop and sell their JATO technology.
After a brief involvement in Marxism, in 1939 Parsons converted to the English occultistAleister Crowley's new religious movement, Thelema, and in 1941 alongside his wifeHelen Northrup joined the Agape Lodge, the Californian branch of the Thelemite Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO). At Crowley’s bidding, Parsons took over the position of lodge leader from Wilfred Talbot Smith in 1942, operating it from his manor home—nicknamed “the Parsonage”—on Orange Grove Boulevard, Pasadena. With L. Ron Hubbard he began the Babalon Working, designed to invoke the Thelemic goddess Babalon to Earth, continuing the procedure with his second wife Marjorie Cameron. After Hubbard stole his life savings, Parsons sold the Parsonage, resigned from the OTO and went through various jobs, while acting as a consultant for the Israeli rocket program. Amid the developing climate of McCarthyism and accusations of espionage, he lost his security clearance and was left unable to work in rocketry. In 1952, Parsons died in a home laboratory explosion at the age of 37; police ruled it an accidental death, but a number of his associates—including Cameron—suspected suicide or murder.
Parsons’ death attracted national attention, and his occult and individualist writings were posthumously published. Parsons is widely recognized by Thelemites and occult researchers as one of the most significant figures in propagating the religion across North America, and by the scientific community for his contributions to rocket propulsion chemistry and design, along with his role as an early advocate of their utilization for space exploration and human spaceflight. He is cited as among the most important figures in the history of the U.S. space program, and is the subject of several biographies and fictionalized portrayals.